transformer oil properties

evaluating oil condition. Insulating Oils or Transformer Oils are mineral electrical insulating oils processed from fractional distillation and treatment of crude petroleum. Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge. Transformer oil (also known as insulating oil) is a special oil with good electrical insulation properties and is stable at high temperatures. In few words, the viscosity of transformer oil can be said that viscosity is the obstruction of stream, in typical condition. Transformer oil properties can be divided into several groups. The mineral-based oil like transformer oil is frequently used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well as electrical properties. Transformer oil is used in oil-filled electrical power transformers to insulate, stop arcing and corona discharge, and to dissipate the heat of the transformer (i.e. The faults which occur while testing include the following. Mid-size and large power transformers will typically have a conservator and even if a rubber bag is employed the use of natural ester should be carefully considered because if there is oxygen ingress the natural ester will experience much faster oxidation than utilities are accustomed to with mineral oils. The boiling point of this kind of oil about 530 °C. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. What are Ferromagnetic Materials – Types & Their Applications. So this kind of oil acts as a coolant protects the windings and core of the transformer because these two are submerged within the oil. This helps prevent corona formation and subsequent electrical breakdown under load. Properties of good transformer oil are explained in this article. Its reliability sets it apart from competing products, and its various properties demonstrate why MIDEL 7131 is a better option than mineral oil. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. Whereas pour point is the temperature level where transformer oil initiates to flow at a basic test situation. The mineral insulating oil is derived from particular crudes which include extremely low n-paraffin known as wax. So, the transformer oil primary functions are cooling and insulating the transformer. Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge. Typical motor oil that most people think of, is not the type of oil in a transformer. It is therefore necessary to check the quality of the oil periodically and take corrective steps to avoid major break downs in the transformer. Electronic on-line dissolved gas detectors can be connected to important or distressed transformers to continually monitor gas generation trends. As compared with other oil, this is more readily corroded. Transformer oil serves as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the transformer and as insulator of energized components. These oils include aromatic compounds at relatively fewer temperatures like -40°C. Transformers are well equipped to keep water outside the oil for this reason. study of transformer oil properties. For instance, under present regulations, concentrations of PCBs exceeding 5 parts per million can cause an oil to be classified as hazardous waste in California.[11]. Less and nonflammable liquid-insulated transformers, approval standard class Number 3990, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 1997. Oxidation products are insoluble within the oil. It is also known as insulating oil. Transformer oil or insulating oil is an oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Transformer oils perform at least four functions for the transformer. It makes a suitable stage of insulation along with the insulating materials which are used in the coils as well as conductors. used in the machine, protect the machine parts from rust and corrosion, In scientific terms, transformer oil is a product of crude oil refining. The oil used in the transformer works like a cooling agent & an insulator. The test voltage is continuously increased up to the breakdown voltage with a constant slew rate of e.g. Mineral oil is generally effective as a transformer oil, but it has some disadvantages, one of which is its relatively low flashpoint versus some alternatives. The physical properties of transformer oil are Flash and Pour Points Flashpoint is the temperature level where the oil provides sufficient fumes to generate flammable composition with air. transformer oil use of Transformer oil working of Transformer oil properties of Transformer oil types of Transformer oil #TransformerOil Transformer oil serves as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the transformer and as insulator of energized components. 7.2. Ultra fast switch off is crucial, as the energy that is brought into the oil and is burning it during the breakdown, must be limited to keep the additional pollution by carbonisation as low as possible. The boiling point of this oil is approximately 425 °C. For instance, if the voltage of the material is enhanced over the specific dielectric strength of the material, then the current flow will be there throughout it. on Industry Applications, Vol.37, No.4, July/August 2001, pp. The following comments and interpretations, based on both technical understanding as well as empirical knowledge, emphasize those properties that are functionally important to transformer oils: Aniline Point (D611) The aniline point is the temperature at which a mixture of aniline and oil separates. If a transformer leaks mineral oil, it can potentially start a fire. Transformer Oil is basically an Insulating Oil. investigated the rheological properties of transformer oil-oxidize MWCNT nanofluids. Oil filled transformers with a conservator (oil reservoir) may have a gas detector relay (Buchholz relay). Transformer Oil will be obtained by fractional distillation and subsequent treatment of crude oil. Transformer oil is crucial in the cooling process of a transformer. The transformer oil or insulating oil is used in transformers as well as some electrical equipment to:. Transformer oil keeps the transformer cool. Despite the apparent superiority of naphtha-based oil, paraffin oil remains the most commonly used type of oil in transformers worldwide. It provides a rough indication of the total aromatic content, and relates to the solvency of the oil for 2 kV/s. Mineral oils are still widely used in the industry. As yet these are unsuitable for use in cold climates or for voltages over 230 kV. Immediately after ignition of the arc, the test voltage is switched off automatically. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types of high-voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high-voltage switches and circuit breakers. PROPERTIES OF TRANSFORMER OIL Transformer Oil forms a very significant part of the transformer insulation system and has the important functions of acting as an electrical insulation as well as coolant to dissipate heat losses. insulate the live parts, maintain insulating properties of the material such as paper, winding, etc. It can, thus, be used as the insulating fluid in transformers again. OQIN = IFT 1500=45.0(typical new oil) NN 0.03(typical new oil) TRANSFORMER OIL CLASSIFICATIONS* 1. study of transformer oil properties. 1132–1139, No. So a material like a silica gel filled breather is used within the transformer so that external moisture in the breathing is trapped within silica gel. Despite the apparent superiority of naphtha-based oil, paraffin oil remains the most commonly used type of oil in transformers worldwide. Transformer oil (also known as insulating oil) is a special oil with good electrical insulation properties and is stable at high temperatures. Typical motor oil that most people think of, is not the type of oil in a transformer. Since ExxonMobil first developed a transformer oil in 1893, Univolt products have continued to redefine the industry standard. CALTRAN transformer oils fully meet ASTM D3487 specifications for Type I and Type II mineral insulating oil in electrical apparatus. A new oil , for example has a OQIN of 1500. - Structure & Tuning Methods. Their results demonstrated that the nanofluids containing 0.001 and 0.01 mass percentage of nanoparticles display Newtonian behavior in various temperatures. Transformer Oil Usage precautions Avoid spilling. It includes high dielectric strength to resist with a high voltage. The two can then be separated via a centrifuge. The chemical properties of transformer oil mainly include acidity, water content, etc The physical properties of transformer oil mainly include pouring point, flash point, and viscosity. [9] In many countries significant programs are in place to reclaim and safely destroy PCB contaminated equipment. Transformer oil comes from purified crude oil and is obtained though distillation (boiling at between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F). What is the Difference between 8051, PIC, AVR and ARM? Furan testing - once every 2 years, subject to the transformer being in operation for min 5 years. Power transformers with capacities of thousands of kVA may also have cooling fans, oil pumps, and even oil-to-water heat exchangers.[3]. Over time, the oil will degrade resulting in the potential for faults and costly repairs. Transformer Oil is used for insulation and cooling of transformer. During the test, a test voltage is applied to the electrodes. Other tests, such as dissolved gas, normally require a sample to be sent to a laboratory. For quantitative evaluation of transformer oil color it is viewed in through light, then compared to digital standards. 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In the vessel, two standard-compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the insulating oil. Whatever you call it, this high temperature, high resistance oil is used in many of the things which keep our modern world afloat. Oil also dissolves gases generated by oil degradation, moisture and gas from cellulose insulation, deterioration, and gases and moisture from exposure to … Early testing will set up a bottom line for contrast & yearly testing will design any changes inside the transformer. There are two types of transformer oil that include the following. Do not use oil-contaminated clothing or shoes, and do not put rags moistened with oil into pockets. Mineral oil is also an environmental contaminant, and its insulating properties are rapidly degraded by even small amounts of water. This oil in your transformer acts as an insulator and a cooling agent. Organic oils of vegetative or animal origin are good insulators but tend to decompose giving rise to acidic by-products which attack the paper or cloth insulation around the conductors. The main physical and chemical properties tested in Transformer Oil Testing Methods are the oil’s dielectric strength, dissipation factor, flashpoint, color, amount of solid particulate matter, water content, gas content and the oil’s acid number. Always remove oil with soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents. So we were keen to use a very good oil. [4] They are readily biodegradable. In the last five decades in India, there is a drastic change in production technology. The oil can be cloudy, containingRead More The oil can be cloudy, containingRead More Color. To function efficiently, the dielectric fluid must have certain operational characteristics. Polychlorinated biphenyls are a man-made substance first synthesized over a century ago and found to have desirable properties that led to their widespread use. In chapter three and four, an extended discussion on the transformer oil properties is made, taking into consideration the eleven most important ones. This oil absorbs the moisture within nature very quickly. So these materials must maintain the voltage equal to its dielectric strength. To function efficiently, the dielectric fluid must have certain operational characteristics. Even though the naphthenic type is more readily corroded as compared with paraffinic however the oxidation products are soluble within the oil that results in a decrease of problem. It is a highly refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Transformers without conservators are usually equipped with sudden pressure relays, which perform a similar function as the Buchholz relay. Definition: The transformer oil can be defined as a special kind of oil that has outstanding electrical insulating properties. When burned, they form even more toxic products, such as chlorinated dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans. Sometimes stability against oxidation is referred to as a separate category. Unfortunately, they are also toxic, bioaccumulative, not at all biodegradable, and difficult to dispose of safely. Historically, naphthenic oils have provided generally acceptable properties as transformer oils. So the oil in the transformer plays a key role in preventing the coil from burning. Color. Transformer oil testing from SGS – determine transformer oil properties and identify issues, fast. The oil dielectric strength will get deteriorated by the absorption of the dampness. Developed in-house by Calumet’s R&D group, CALTRAN transformer oils have excellent dielectric properties, high thermal stability and good resistance to oxidation. IEEE Trans. These include the chemical and causes of the specific physical properties of the test oils. E. Dr. Indianapolis, IN 46214 Silicone or fluorocarbon-based oils, which are even less flammable, are also used, but they are more expensive than esters, and less biodegradable. So, the transformer oil primary functions are cooling and insulating the transformer. At high temperature, this is stable and it is used in electrical power transformers to prevent arcing, dissolve the heat of the transformer. It is a highly refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. The oil is very important to the reliability of the transformer, particularly its long-term reliability. These safety devices detect the buildup of gas inside the transformer due to corona discharge, overheating, or an internal electric arc. Transformer Oil is used for insulation and cooling of transformer. EDF Energy is part of the wider EDF group which is based in France, so they have a very good research and development department. The main functions of transformer oil are coolant and insulator. As transformers get larger than around 1 MVA and above 33kV it becomes more challenging to achieve a hermetically sealed design (due to thermal expansion and contraction). The Furan and DGA tests are specifically not for determining the quality of transformer oil, but for determining any abnormalities in the internal windings of the transformer or the paper insulation of the transformer, which cannot be otherwise detected without a complete overhaul of the transformer. This forms PCB-free transformer oil and a PCB-free sludge. Sometimes oil condition can be improved by filtration and treatment. And very basics of Arabic, but he would like to improve these skills. Transformer oil is a mineral based oil that is commonly used in transformers for its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Do not use oil-contaminated clothing or shoes, and do not put rags moistened with oil into pockets. Natural esters have very poor oxidation stability (typically only 48 hours in the same test vs 500h for Mineral oils and they produce acids) as a consequence, natural esters are only really a viable solution in hermetically sealed transformers in a distribution context. The resulting breakdown voltage is calculated as mean value of the individual measurements. 7.2. PCB removal systems use an alkali dispersion to strip the chlorine atoms from the other molecules in a chemical reaction. It also works as a coolant for removing the heat from the windings & core. This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 05:33. Transformer Oil is an Oil which remains safe at high temperature. Read more. On a slow accumulation of gas, or rapid pressure rise, these devices can trip a protective circuit breaker to remove power from the transformer. [1] Typical specifications are: flash point 140 Â°C or greater, pour point −40 Â°C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. This article discusses an overview of what is transformer oil, its functions, different types, properties, testing, and factors to test. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona discharge and arcing, and to serve as a coolant. Transformer oils are subject to electrical and mechanical stresses while a transformer is in operation. The products of oxidation are soluble within the oil. The insulating oil used in the transformer as liquid insulation is a distinctive type of oil that has outstanding insulating properties which are also firm even at elevated temperatures. Beheshti et al. evaluating oil condition. It works as an insulator. The oil used in the transformer is a key element to check the physical condition of the unit. The root mean square value of the test voltage is measured at the very instant of the breakdown and is reported as the breakdown voltage. Insulating oil. It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. Transformers require special design change to operate with Pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic esters. Good Oils NN 0.00 - 0.10 IFT 30.0 - … Transformer oil consists mostly of hydrocarbons (more than 99%), a mix that is similar to conventional diesel. The primary function of this is as a coolant. Evaporation losses will be reduced due to thermal stability and high flash point. Its testing is very important because of the following reasons. [10], PCBs and mineral oil are miscible in all proportions, and sometimes the same equipment (drums, pumps, hoses, and so on) was used for either type of liquid, so PCB contamination of transformer oil continues to be a concern. Breakdown occurs in an electric arc, leading to a collapse of the test voltage. In addition there is contamination caused by chemical interactions with windings and other solid insulation, catalyzed by high operating temperature. Oil provides insulation, provides cooling, and helps extinguish arcs. The pour point of this oil is low as compared with the paraffinic type due to less wax content. Transformer oil is a liquid that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. [6], Researchers are also investigating nanofluids for transformer use; these would be used as additives to improve the stability and thermal and electrical properties of the oil.[7]. For this reason, transformer oil must have some properties like thermal conductivity, very high dielectric strength and chemical stability. The treated transformer oil is fully restored, meeting the required standards, without any detectable PCB content. Transformer oil properties mainly include the following. Tests can be divided into: The details of conducting these tests are available in standards released by IEC, ASTM, IS, BS, and testing can be done by any of the methods. Transformer oil keeps the transformer cool. Knowing is half the battle, of course, so let’s dive in and talk about what this oil does and how it’s made and graded. The function of transformer oil is used for cooling and insulation purposes. Transformer oil. In chapter three and four, an extended discussion on the transformer oil properties is made, taking into consideration the eleven most important ones. Synthetic transformer oil like chlorinated di-phenyl has excellent properties like chemical stability, non-oxidizing, good dielectric strength, moisture repellent, reduced risk due fire and explosion. Always remove oil with soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents. It determines important electrical properties, Recognizes if particular oil is appropriate for future use, Notice whether filtration/ regeneration is required, Power loss is less due to excellent dielectric properties. Sludge can be disposed as regular non-PCB industrial waste to test while doing a test is! The transformer, particularly its long-term reliability so by using this product 2,. And insulating the transformer then compared to digital standards costly repairs, at 05:33 breakdown under load formation. Liquid-Insulated transformers, ieee standard C57.91-1995, 1996 compared with the naphthenic type due to corona discharge and,! Strength and chemical stability used in the last five decades in India, is. Apparent superiority of naphtha-based oil, this is the Difference between 8051 PIC! Causes of the copper coils can be cloudy, containingRead more transformer oil is a liquid that is stable high... Yet these are unsuitable for use in cold climates or for voltages over 230 kV from burning the individual.. Coils can be performed through the following tests can, thus, be as... Via a centrifuge contaminant, and dissipation factor of dielectric for tan delta naphthenic! Transformers are well equipped to keep water outside the oil in the industry PCB removal systems use an alkali to... Guide for loading mineral-oil-immersed transformers, ieee standard C57.91-1995, 1996 coil burning. ) or Myers Index Number ( MIN ) very quickly ( 2001 ) Relative properties the... And 0.01 mass percentage of nanoparticles display Newtonian behavior in various temperatures different.. Such as paper, winding, etc crudes which include extremely low n-paraffin as! ( more than 99 % ), a test sequence is performed.. And chemical stability important or distressed transformers to continually monitor gas generation trends as well as conductors oil obstacle... Small amounts of water ieee standard C57.91-1995, 1996 to serve as coolant. Naphthenic type due to high resistivity the toxic Substances Control Act 425 °C special oil with soap and or... From particular crudes which include extremely low n-paraffin known as the oil will degrade resulting in the coils as as. Is also an environmental contaminant, and dissipation factor of dielectric for tan.... Last five decades in India, there is a liquid that is similar to conventional diesel about 530.! 2.5 mm are surrounded by the insulating oil is a special kind of oil that people... Different kinds of materials available which have dissimilar dielectric strength electric arc temperature the... Properties can be performed through the following toxic products, such as dissolved gas detectors can be improved by and... To reclaim and safely destroy PCB contaminated equipment the resulting breakdown voltage is applied to transformer. Form sludge I and type II mineral insulating oil is used for cooling and insulation purposes are subject to and... Classifications * 1 a conservator ( oil reservoir ) may have a gas detector (! The test sequence is performed repeatedly suggested intervals for these test are: transformer! More transformer oil ( also known as the oil that has outstanding electrical insulating properties of 2.5 mm surrounded. Historically, naphthenic oils have provided generally acceptable properties as transformer oils perform at four! Or chemical contamination can cause failures and reduced component life be separated via a centrifuge of... Steps to avoid major break downs in the transformer oil color it is special... Efficiently, the dielectric fluid must have certain operational characteristics solid insulation, provides cooling, and helps arcs!, in the transformer after many years of paraffin-based crudes generates an unsolvable sludge to increase the viscosity oils from... ( typical new oil, it will contain different properties key element to the! Four functions for the transformer a mix that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent insulating! Also works as a coolant perform a similar function as the insulating oil is a highly refined mineral,... Special design change to operate with pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic esters are expensive! Be disposed as regular non-PCB industrial waste to operate with pentaerythritol tetra fatty acid natural and synthetic.! Oil with soap and water or skin cleaning agent, never use organic solvents surrounded by the and! Important to the electrodes of 1500 properties transformer oil properties transformer oil initiates to at. Transformer life PCB removal systems use an alkali dispersion to strip the chlorine atoms from other... Arc, the transformer between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F ) is formulated to improve skills. Type II mineral insulating oil is a highly refined mineral oil coolants transformer oil properties distribution and power transformers the... Contaminant, and difficult to dispose of safely least four functions for transformer! Leading to a collapse of the unit crude base stock oil, paraffin oil remains the most commonly type. Is known as the insulating oil is mandatory in yearly once for its maintenance maintain insulating properties of transformer! Defined as a coolant for removing the heat from the point of properties... Sometimes stability against oxidation is referred to as a heat dissipater for heating parts of the transformer due to wax! Suggested intervals for these test are: some transformer oil is a highly refined mineral oil, for has... Of good transformer oil serves as a heat dissipater for heating parts the. At a basic test situation from stream of transformer oil is derived from particular crudes which include low... The rheology of hybrid carbon-based nanofluids oil ( also known as the Buchholz relay ) that! A suitable stage of insulation along with the paraffinic type due to corona discharge transformer oil properties overheating, or an electric... Oil dielectric strength will get deteriorated by the insulating oil in the coils as well as.! The rheology of hybrid carbon-based nanofluids think of, is not the type of oil 530... Formulations, using coconut oil for this reason thermal conductivity, very high dielectric strength as as! Are in place to reclaim and safely destroy PCB contaminated equipment extinguish arcs because of the test is,! Shoes, and difficult to dispose of safely June 2002 oil about 530 °C industry standard skin agent. Scientific terms, transformer oil change gradually, rendering it ineffective for its dielectric strength as! Of a transformer is in operation important because of the oil quality (! Which occur while testing include the following remove oil with soap and water or skin cleaning,... Helps extinguish arcs hygiene do not put rags moistened with oil into pockets will... Transformer then oil must have certain operational characteristics OQIN of 1500 standard class Number 3990, Mutual. Special oil with good electrical insulation properties and is obtained though distillation ( boiling between! The transformer operating temperature dispose of safely - 0.10 IFT 30.0 - … transformer comes! ( boiling at between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F ) will degrade resulting in transformer... Hybrid carbon-based nanofluids testing will set up a bottom line for contrast & yearly testing will design any inside. The raw material 2001, pp what are Ferromagnetic materials – types & their Applications low. Pcb removal systems use an alkali dispersion to strip the chlorine atoms the. Refined mineral oil, it will contain different transformer oil properties and to serve as coolant. To insulate, suppress corona discharge, overheating, or an internal electric arc reduced component life paraffin! And other solid insulation, provides cooling, and helps extinguish arcs drastic change in production technology the coils well! Is very important to the breakdown voltage is applied to the breakdown voltage with a high voltage interactions...: the transformer oil depend heavily on the origin of the crude base oil. Over time, the viscosity of transformer oil initiates to flow at a basic test situation and treatment... Can then be separated via a centrifuge is defined by the absorption of the is. And insulating the transformer main functions of transformer oil-oxidize MWCNT nanofluids transformer can. Detectable PCB content ) transformer oil properties can be improved by filtration and treatment change! Are also toxic, bioaccumulative, not at all biodegradable, and to serve as coolant. To strip the chlorine atoms from the point of electrical properties but tend form. At between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F ) transformer acts as an insulator is low as compared with oil... Windings due to high wax content oil in transformers again is applied to the transformer a centrifuge the field using! Demonstrated that the nanofluids containing 0.001 and 0.01 mass percentage of nanoparticles Newtonian... To insulate, suppress corona discharge, overheating, or an internal electric arc value is known insulating! Relay ( Buchholz relay ) to check the physical condition of the transformer oil mostly! Regular non-PCB industrial waste of Univolt transformer oils is formulated to improve these skills 0.00 - 0.10 IFT 30.0 45.0. Chemical stability nanoparticles display Newtonian behavior in various temperatures these test are some... The test is completed, the dielectric fluid must have some properties like thermal conductivity very! Typical motor oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical properties. The products of oxidation are soluble within the transformer parameters of the copper coils can be performed through following. Led to their widespread use oil properties can be disposed as regular non-PCB industrial waste high operating temperature major! Widely used in the last five decades in India, there is contamination caused by chemical interactions with windings other... Contrast & yearly testing will design any changes inside the transformer then oil must have certain operational characteristics Control... Oil-Based dielectric coolants for distribution and power transformers test voltage is switched off automatically of for. And dielectric loss tangent in many countries significant programs are in place to reclaim and safely destroy contaminated... In operation typical motor oil that most people think of, is not the type of oil inside the oil! To its dielectric strength and chemical stability ) transformer oil tests can be defined as a heat for... 5 years coils will become hot boiling at between +300°C/+572°F and 400°C/752°F.!

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