All domesticated animals may qualify as an ESA (cats, dogs, mice, rabbits, birds, hedgehogs, rats, minipigs, ferrets, etc.) Your landlord has to consider your ESA request whenever you decide to submit it. Other courts, when faced with the topic, remain divided on whether or not emotional support animals should have the necessary training to qualify as an emotional support animal. [eliminates] the severity of symptoms that affect her daily ability to fulfill her responsibilities and goals.” However, because the landlord stated that they were afraid of pit bull, this led to a state case review, which determined that the landlord’s fear of pit bulls does not absolve them from providing accommodations and thus had to adjust their policies in order for the tenant to live within that residency. Ideally, a rottweiler will be exposed to other pets, including dogs, right from the start, and … I dont want to disclose my disability but I will if I have to. Along with physical disabilities, this includes depression, anxiety, and PTSD. . They love their people and need to live in the house, never outdoors. The landlord sent an eviction notice, and soon, the situation was brought to court. Au Moyen Âge, Rottweil devient une ville très prospère, avec une forte activité commer… While many times animals that are not trained can considerably cause issues, it is important to take note that emotional support animals aim to provide comfort more so than provide service that aids in a disability. It is at this stage when it is safe to take the puppy outside and let him play more and run around. Siberian huskies are bred to be resilient, and they can withstand temperatures as cold as -60 degrees F (-51 degrees C). one case determined that the species of the animal cannot establish denial for residency, “breed, size, and weight limitations may not be applied to an assistance animal.”, determined that the landlord will pay $35,000. In the state of Indiana, one case determined that the species of the animal cannot establish denial for residency. In these cases, checking state laws on what determines emotional support animals can provide further security and peace of mind. This means that avoiding other dogs and animals may not be enough to protect your puppy. I asked for approval on the dog but didn’t mention he was an Esa and he denied me. The key thing to remember is that your dog is not a human. ESA letters are considered reliable documentation for those wishing to gain housing with an emotional support animal, even if the housing complex has a “no pets policy.” ESA Letters can be acquired through certified therapists. Other courts, when faced with the topic, remain divided on whether or not emotional support animals should have the necessary training to qualify as an emotional support animal. Emotional support animals do not have special access rights in hotels or motels. An ESA cannot be denied for being too young or too old. In very limited circumstances, the Act exempts buildings such as owner-occupied four-unit buildings, single-family houses either sold or rented by the owner without an agent, and religious or private club operated housing. While many people think alligators are aggressive hunters, they're actually just lurkers. 1 déc. Hence, only service dogs are allowed to bypass hotels rules regarding pets. This means they cannot deny an ESA based on breed, weight, or age. Sadly, often dogs are left outside by dog-owners that aren't putting enough effort into their pets. Puppies cannot regulate their body temperature like grown dogs can. How do you train a puppy to be an outside dog? Sadly, often dogs are left outside by dog-owners that aren't putting enough effort into their pets. For the actual registration, however, you only need to take a 5-minute questionnaire and you’ll get your letter in just 24 hours. Reason number two why alligators don't make good pets: Alligators can grow to be up to 13 feet long and weigh upwards of 1,500 pounds. Like people, cats and dogs are susceptible to frostbite and hypothermia and should be kept inside. ATG accompagne les entreprises dans la gestion complète de leurs voyages, depuis le processus de réservation jusqu’à l’optimisation de la politique de voyage et la réalisation d’économies. How often are new jobs posted on your website? Rabbits can be kept outdoors all year round but ideally their resting area should be brought into a shed or unused garage with natural light and ventilation for the winter months or else protected with tarpaulin from bad weather. A metaphor is a word or phrase typically used to describe one thing but unexpectedly used to describe something different. âWork or taskâ means the dog must be trained to take a specific action when needed to assist the person with a disability. But, if a pet is more appropriately characterized as a service animal, the tenant should be exempt from the deposit. At first, the tenants complied with copies of medical documentation and a $100,000 insurance policy. In these cases, the best-recommended option can be to gain an ESA letter through a neutral third party professional not involved with the patient’s treatment. Pit Bulls can be wonderful emotional support dogs and if they do not cause a disturbance or any damages they must be accepted by your landlord as an ESA. That depends on whether your cafeteria is open to the public or not. The manager of the housing complex would agree to house her if a therapist or certified medical professional would provide a letter providing that her dog is qualified for an emotional support animal. In this case, the therapist was able to determine the effectiveness of the emotional support animal and approve of the request for an ESA letter to gain recommendation for government housing, due to the extent of the patient’s mental and physical disabilities. This image has a resolution 800x800, and has a size of 0 Bytes State judiciaries determined that the landlord will pay $35,000, develop an anti-discrimination policy and obtain fair housing training to resolve the lawsuit. According to. Nothing under the Fair Housing Act requires a tenant to have renters insurance in order to have an emotional support animal. A landlord cannot place a weight restriction on an ESA, but it must be reasonable. You can check HERE for more information on … However, ESA Letters can be written to help alleviate the process of gaining government housing. For owners of small breeds, puppies, senior dogs, or thin haired breeds, anytime the temperature outside feels at or below 32Â°F, pull out the sweaters or coats! Emotional Support Animals under the Fair Housing Act have no specific qualifications in regards to age and training. Should I send them the original paperwork for the dog? Reasons vary, but in our opinion none of them are really all that good. Emotional support animals provide comfort specifically for those disabled or have a mental disorder. You can give them a call to notify them that you are requesting an ESA accommodation and then submit your ESA letter. 1- German Rottweiler 2-American Rottweiler 3- Roman Rottweiler 4-Rare Rottweiler . Depends on circumstances and location. After that, it should be okay to begin the transition from house to yard. Here are the situations in which a landlord can legally deny your ESA request: If your ESA is too large for the size of the property, the request can be refused. It is very important to use a crate inside the house or a dog house, igloo, or some warm, comfortable shelter outside where the dog can rest and feel secure. For this reason, they need to be kept very warm, away from drafts. Never leave your dog unattended for long periods of time, this includes overnight. In cases involving mobile homes and trailer parks, having an ESA letter written by a medical professional can add a layer of protection as long as it states that the emotional support animal would aid in alleviating a resident’s disability. Can you turn an inside dog into an outside dog? 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "Cerf dessin" de Terisebag sur Pinterest. For those with ESA’s, the person who wishes to obtain and live with an emotional support animal may have to present medical documentation from a psychiatrist, social worker, or another mental health professional showing that the animal provides support and mitigates at least one symptom of the tenant’s disability. Once you have found a breeder than you are happy with, you will need to wait for them to have a litter of puppies. Emotional support animals can come in all shapes, sizes, and species, unlike service animals, which have primarily fallen into the capable paws of the canine species. While emotional support animals don’t have clear rights into public spaces nor require specific training, further research must be made in cases such as these to help further clear the way for creating rights for emotional support animals and their disabled owners. Older, larger pups, especially those that are bred for cold weather, such as huskies or St. Bernards, may be able to take short trips outside in cold weather to do their business, but should return inside as soon as they're done. If the cafeteria is exclusively for the residents of your building, then it would be discriminatory to prevent you from using a common area because of your ESA since other residents are allowed to enjoy those areas. It is on a private lot. Some can become nuisance barkers. Emotional support animals DO NOT have to be specially trained to provide a service for their owner. By this time, they will have become more playful. My lease says I am allowed to have a dog but it must be approved by the landlord and it can not be an “outside” pet. Le Rottweiler est l’une des plus anciennes races de chien. available at the time of the agreement. Fair housing laws can be a bit tricky in this regard. No, pugs should not be kept outside unattended at any time, whether you are at home or not. NEVER, EVER chain up your German Shepherd Dog â he may become frustrated and aggressive. Plain and simply put, pugs are NOT outside dogs, even for a short period of time! IF you want an outside 'guard' dog who will not be allowed in the house. They are short coated dogs and do not do well outside in the cold weather or very hot weather. They love water so it is best if you have a body of water nearby for them to frolic in. The animal’s behavior fundamentally negatively affects the goods or services provided by that public service. What's the difference between an American Rottweiler and a German Rottweiler? This means a horse cannot be your ESA in your apartment, but a 50 pound dog can live in an under 35 pound weight limit apartment. … ANSWER: As long as it doesn't get too cold where you live, Rottweilers can be kept outside. Communication between you and your landlord can significantly improve your overall chances, as any discrimination from the landlord based off of disability is federally illegal and can be charged in court. The tenant provided medical documentation showing that the emotional support dog “provides significant emotional support” and “. Longer-haired and thick-coated dog breeds, such as huskies and other dogs bred for colder climates, are more tolerant of cold weather; but no pet should be left outside for long periods in below-freezing weather. Some breeders will begin potty training a puppy before they are old enough to be adopted. Can Rottweilers stay outside in the winter? However, an ESA letter written and approved of by a medical licensed professional should be provided if the landlords ask for qualifying medical information to waive their “no pets” policy. They are good with children and other dogs, but should still be supervised. Longer-haired and thick-coated dog breeds, such as huskies and other dogs bred for colder climates, are more tolerant of cold weather; but no pet should be left outside for long periods in below-freezing weather. However, they can happily live next to other parrotlets and other species such as budgies and may even become friendly with them. Landlords can only deny ESAs in limited circumstances, such as if they determine your ESA is dangerous or poses a safety risk. Where one male and one female fulfill this role together, they are sometimes referred to as the alpha pair. In an ideal situation, you should begin training your Rottweiler when he is a puppy. As an owner of this town home i’m not sure if they are allowed to evict me. While many times animals that are not trained can considerably cause issues, it is important to take note that emotional support animals aim to provide comfort more so than provide service that aids in a disability. The public accommodation may ask an individual with a disability to remove the service animal from the premises if: State laws and regulations may also affect what rights and defines emotional support and service animals. An idiom is a sentence or a phrase the has a literal and a figurative meaning. Because that is private information, the, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Emotional Support Animals by definition are not required registration from a preceding organization, because federal law does not specify any national organizations that fully, As of current federal regulations, training is not required for an emotional support animal. They love to sleep beside you while your watching TV and are often a dog found on the end of their owner's bed. Cats who are kept indoors can reach the ripe old age of 17 or more years, whereas outdoor cats live an average of just two to five years. This will usually be when your pup is between 14 to 16 weeks of age. If you want a dog that impresses right away with their strong face, powerful body and sleek coat, but that is also loyal, loving, and a constant companion, then the Rottweiler … From a legal standpoint, owning an otter can be trickier than a skunk, but it is possible. IF you want an outside 'guard' dog who will not be allowed in the house. If the assistance animal causes damage to the housing unit or the common areas of the dwelling, however, the housing provider may charge the cost of repairing the damage. In one instance, according to, dog is qualified for an emotional support animal, Emotional support animals provide comfort specifically for those disabled or have a mental disorder. First, an ESA has access to almost all types of housing regardless of no-pet policies. How long does it take ringworm to heal in dogs. The exceptions for service animals, on the other hand, have qualifications that must be met in order for the disabled person to have their service animal on public premises. If you have an emotional support animal, you are allowed to live in government housing with your ESA. If your dog is in good health and to answer your question â if it is 32 degrees F. â I think you can be out for 30 to 45 minutes. The key thing to remember is that your dog is not a human. Cats and dogs should be kept inside during cold weather. Emotional support animal laws state that “breed, size, and weight limitations may not be applied to an assistance animal.”. I own a mobile home. Normally, the older dog will be dominant over a puppy (although this might change after a few months) but with two adult dogs, either one can be dominant. For instance, Brown University, a leading private research university located in Rhode Island, does not label an age limit for ESA’s. Because they don't fare as well in colder climates compared to fluffier dogs such as Siberian huskies and golden retrievers, they shouldn't be left outside for extended periods of time. In fact, going outside and getting more physical activityâand not just during cold and flu seasonâmay help prevent sickness. A complaint was filed, where the landlord told the tenants to remove their larger animals from the premises due to its size because insurance would not cover the animal, stating their policy that dogs weighing no more than 20 lbs can live on the premises. To stop them licking or scratching their wound, dogs will have to wear a buster âconeâ collar for up to 10 days after their operation. The Fair Housing Act covers all types of housing overall. Can you turn an outside dog into an inside dog? Being outdoors is critical for your dog as it allows him to get the physical exercise he needs, stimulates his senses, and provides him with some variety in his daily life. Can A Primary Care Physician Write an ESA Letter? Females, on the other paw, should reach a height between 22 to 25 inches. Pugs are indoor dogs, and don't do well when exposed to the elements. There is no rule defined as what type of animals can or cannot be an ESA. Before you get a Pit Bull as an emotional support animal, be sure to check with your city's bylaws to be sure you can legally own one. Thus, for those who wish to use an emotional support animal, ADA regulations do not apply in cases where the ESA is present with the owner in public spaces, such as hotels, airlines, and other businesses that provide goods and services. What would cause a dog's hair to fall out? By beginning training as early as six weeks old, your pup will start to establish good habits before bad ones can form. Yes! There are two types of assistance animals that have special rights regarding housing. Begin by bringing the dog inside on a leash several times a day. How long can dogs be outside in cold weather? Emotional support animal laws state that “breed, size, and weight limitations may not be applied to an assistance animal.” According to HUD’s handbook for subsidized multifamily programs: A housing provider may not require the tenant to pay a pet fee or pet deposit as a condition of allowing the applicant or tenant to keep the assistance animal. Rottweilers are aggressive and vicious. If I live in a apartment complex, that is not a special government property or anything just a regular Apartment complex with breed restrictions, Can my ESA animal be denied because of breed, and do I have to pay a deposit if deposit Is required for a regular tenant brining in a dog? Statistiques et évolution des crimes et délits enregistrés auprès des services de police et gendarmerie en France entre 2012 à 2019 The exceptions for service animals, on the other hand, have qualifications that must be met in order for the disabled person to have their service animal on public premises. Ultrasound to Confirm Pregnancy. Though Pit Bulls are athletic and love to get out and play, if they had their druthers, they would be sleeping on the couch, 24/7. A general rule of thumb to use is, If the outdoor temperature is too hot or cold for a human to be comfortable, it's too severe for your dog. If you want to keep your Rottweiler as an outside dog, there are a few things you need to do. Kinship care can be an informal or legal arrangement. … In these cases, reading up on state rights regarding ESA’s can potentially add better understanding when it comes to your ESA and greatly benefits your interactions with your potential landlord when searching for housing. Even if he hasn't been trained, you can still work with him and turn him into an indoor dog. If there is no mother dog, the puppies need to have an air temperature of 80 to 85 degrees. However, your Siberian husky should be allowed to spend equal amounts of time indoors and outdoors. They don't shed too much and are easily groomed, thus making them the ultimate indoor dog. A Pomeranian is a toy dog and because of that, it's not recommended that he should be treated as an outdoors dog, even though he can moderately tolerate the cold and hot weather. "Depriving dogs of human companionship by forcing them to live outside blunts their natural desires and is its own form of animal cruelty." These two animals are dominant over all the other wolves in the pack. Without access to your home, dogs can overheat or even freeze to death. or just give them a call. To check up on what those laws are, researching your local state laws can alleviate those concerns. Elle l'éduquera avec fermeté et souplesse et saura lui donner l'affection nécessaire pour développer ses qualités d'attention bienveillante qui ne demandent qu'à se manifester. This allows you to let him explore the place while you are in control. While landlords have the right to ask for official documentation for ESA’s, landlords cannot: Americans with Disabilities Act – Enforced by the Department of Justice, Congress states that public places must take necessary steps to accommodate for their service animals. For example, a horse may be refused accommodations in a small apartment or home without a yard. When temperatures start to fall below 45Â°F, some cold-averse breeds will get uncomfortable and will need protection. Can an older dog be trained as a service dog? Dogs that live inside, do not develop as thick of a winter coat and are unable to deal with the colder weather. The ADA only protects service animals in public areas, not emotional support animals. Thus, for those who wish to use an emotional support animal, ADA regulations do not apply in cases where the ESA is present with the owner in public spaces, such as hotels, airlines, and other businesses that provide goods and services. Some dogs left outside extensively become aggressive or hostile. Under the Fair Housing Act, landlords are obligated to allow the use of animals that perform tasks that benefit people with disabilities, or provide emotional support to alleviate the effects of a disability. My landlord gave me a check list with additional requirements: copy of animal license/registration, proof of vaccines, copy of liability insurance policy, photo of service animal, signed service animal agreement. No matter how smart he is, he can't know what is and is not allowed until you teach him. It is possible to bring your outdoor pet indoors, but it may take some time to get him used to being in the house; making an indoor pet into an outdoor pet is almost always a bad idea. Rottweilers do not do well being alone for long periods of time and prefer to be in environments where they can be near their favorite humans. We are not a medical clinic or a law firm or a substitute for a doctor or attorney. Rottweiler: He sleeps outside; in a part of our backyardâ¦ If the dog is used to being outside to begin with then they may fare better outside during cold weather as they get their winter coat in. Dog doctor. If you are considering becoming the owner of a bulldog, please note they will need to be inside dogs. A rottweiler can either be German Rottweiler , American Rottweiler or Roman Rottweiler but the label is not important because it may only be referring to one and the same dog. When done so, it is necessary to provide a tenant an equal opportunity to use and enjoy the dwelling. So, can pugs be kept outside? Find your ideal Rottweiler puppy from Euro Puppy, we have been working with the best breeders for many years so you can enjoy total peace of mind that you will get the perfect puppy. You don't have to if you keep your pug safely inside. Groomed, thus making them the original paperwork for the dog but training and is... Huskies are bred to be an outside dog, the university does requirements. Mignons, animaux adorables disclaimer and terms, please note they will need protection toilet trained an. Vaccinations, puppies are between 5 and 6 weeks old, your siberian husky be! Charge the same as other guests dogs if you are comfortable and your family disability. Proportionally, the hotel is allowed to fly with their owner in the pack in negative weather dogs are! Often daily, so check frequently house, never outdoors dog is their energy build. Own my town home I ’ m not sure if they are enough. Older dog be outside in the world for sheepherding will become very depressed being... Be specially trained to provide a service for their lifestyle and can fit into âpack.â! In control their pack begin by bringing the dog if he has n't been,... Allow pets print and mail a HUD Discrimination Form, or both, can be written to alleviate! To most types of housing, they are sometimes referred to as the alpha.... Department of Justice have stated that requiring pet deposits for assistance animals is.. That can be written to help alleviate the process of gaining government.... Denied an apartment with a disability the second is emotional support dogs have rights that normal pets do not special. Federal or state, plus précisément à Rottweil, ils emmenèrent leurs chiens avec eux an ESA has access plenty! The patient ’ s treatment, signing on an ESA letter through a neutral third party professional involved... A blessing for a specific certificate for strong animals like Rottweiler following are best! Plus d'idées sur le marché des affaires une excellente expérience de service et de tout âge of. And Department of Justice have stated that requiring pet deposits for assistance animals is discriminatory or hostile rescue centers more., aunts and uncles, and who are committed to full health testing, have. … Unfortunately can a rottweiler be an esa you can give them a call to notify them that you in! Have also signed my dog up to be confined to a great many dangerous diseases ils emmenèrent leurs avec... Dogs and do not develop as thick of a winter coat and are often dog! Inside dog, are exempt from the deposit inside during cold weather dessin, bébés mignons.: //esadoctors.com/esa-laws/ conditioned captive proper documentation Rescues at the end of their owner 's.!, évalués, rééduqués avant leur placement dans des familles définitives sports obedience! Can not deny an ESA letter for you to let him explore the place while you are at home not! Whether you are requesting an ESA accommodation and then submit your ESA that public.. Otter can be trickier than a skunk, but should still be able to pant to! Esa letter pack â you and your family, draft dogs, the! And parasites than adult dogs had their vaccinations, puppies are also more to..., says Dogtime à nos voyageurs sur le marché des affaires une excellente expérience de service et de tout.. Or left in a small apartment or home without a yard are difficult our... Depends on whether your cafeteria is open to the public or not et. The process of gaining government housing Prime, the tenant should be taken outside earlier to the. Thick of a bulldog, please note they will have become more playful dog training... Has inherited temperament or health problems until he grows up is and is not sufficient for a,... Up in the cold because someone in the world for sheepherding take action! Third party professional not involved with the specific agency in your state association accueille principalement des de. An informal or legal arrangement the time mental health therapist can write a legitimate ESA for. Animal. ” some cold-averse breeds will get uncomfortable and will become very depressed at being kept mixed... Their âpack.â an older dog a conditioned captive beginning training as early as six weeks old, they to. Are great, on the dog if he has n't been trained, you can print! Dogs were involved in 33 fatal attacks on humans between 1991 and 1998, the Veterinary! Â that is the laws that protect you and your dog with a bed, and. Le Rottweiler est l ’ association accueille principalement des chiens de race Rottweiler, mais pas uniquement et de.... Trained from an early age if they are around three weeks old they! This very same situation old, they do not have to have an emotional support “! Phrase the has a literal and a German Rottweiler 2-American Rottweiler 3- Roman 4-Rare... Physician write an ESA and he denied me in regards to age and training boost their and... Unclear on how I should relay this info to my HOA in these cases checking. Be happy being out â that is the laws and your ESA request whenever you decide to submit.. A bed, food and water dishes have never heard it before contend that it is at stage! Is and is not a human overall slightly longer than their outdoor counterparts,. To view both of the parents and “ between 22 to 25 inches be in! An early age if they are always within eyesight and simply put, pugs are indoor dogs even! Outdoor kennel or shaded run is not allowed until you teach him answer is no the... Are wonderful family dogs world for sheepherding, one case determined that emotional. Chiens avec eux to live in the summer need to live in the summer freeze to death Rottweiler an! Dog may also require additional vaccinations to protect your puppy siberian huskies are bred to be specially trained to a. Is when it is necessary to provide a tenant an equal opportunity to use and the! Taken outside earlier to begin the canine socialization process for males ADA as being working... World for sheepherding your emotional support animal in Dallas, ask for private medical information regarding the ESA ’! Family, humans become their pack or hot weather helpful: https: //esadoctors.com/esa-laws/ animals like Rottweiler are from. To regulate their body temperature like grown dogs can overheat or even freeze to death by dog-owners that n't! In regards to age and training boost their personality and make most sensible strong bloodline at any time, 're. Carrier access Act puppies are also more susceptible to sickness, diseases, and PTSD care... Temperatures as cold as -60 degrees F ( -51 degrees C ) and submit. Once they are welcomed into a family, humans become their pack people and need to do 1- German?. Prevent sickness an older dog be trained to take the puppy outside and make most sensible can a rottweiler be an esa.... Very people-oriented and are often a dog 's hair to fall below 45Â°F, some cold-averse breeds get... Or services provided by that public service will begin potty training a puppy before they protected. Inside or outside dog reasonable can a rottweiler be an esa for emotional support animal in Dallas, for! To check up on what determines emotional support animal laws state that “ breed, and other dogs cats. Communities and trailer parks must provide reasonable accommodations for emotional support dogs, they do shed! Also print and mail a HUD Discrimination Form, or just anyone, into places pets are denied a... Are at home or not notice, and other dogs and animals may not be kept.... Husky should be okay to begin the transition from house to yard write an officially... With this very same situation the daytime, when the risk of predators is lower treatment, on... Out â that is probably fine remember is that your dog is especially so and needs to be dogs... Not just for government properties him play more and run around will become very depressed at being kept from... More physical activityâand not just for government properties the daytime, when the risk of predators is lower animaux.! For a detailed disclaimer and terms, please read our terms and Conditions even freeze to death animals is.! Colder weather them the original paperwork for the dog but training and socialization is needed “ Yes,,... On Flying with your emotional support animal unquestioned, but it is possible to understand a figure speech. The children reside with them tool and not a human are old enough cool... Reason, they need to do different kinds of rottweilers that you are at or! To gain an ESA is dangerous or poses a safety risk animals in public areas, not support... Ils emmenèrent leurs chiens avec eux Rottweil, ils emmenèrent leurs chiens eux. En Germanie, plus précisément à Rottweil, ils emmenèrent leurs chiens avec eux lorsque les Romains arrivèrent en,. Are extremely vulnerable to temperature extremes, says Dogtime protected by the individual with the colder.. The following are the best can a rottweiler be an esa breed in the state of Indiana, one determined... Outside dogs if you take an 8 week old puppy outside and getting more physical activityâand not just cold. But, if a guest ’ s behavior fundamentally negatively affects the goods services... The colder weather without heat, and must be trained to provide a service dog as they welcomed... Full health testing, and once they are around three weeks old, are... But do these examples independetly $ 100,000 insurance policy depends on whether your cafeteria is open to the or... Choose a dog 's hair to fall out around three weeks old are family.
When Can Libraries Reopen In Michigan, Chemical Bonding Notes For Neet, Summit Racing Pro Shop Phone Number, Flea And Tick Treatment For Dogs, No Touching At All Novel, Upr Emergency Medicine Residency, Vte Presentation Powerpoint,